NWT Corporation Serving our clients since 1974

PWR Operational Chemistry:
Problem Assessment and Diagnosis


The PWR Operational Chemistry course was developed by NWT to assist plant and corporate chemistry personnel in the following areas:

  • Identifying the presence of, or trends toward abnormal chemistry conditions.
  • Diagnosing problem causes.
  • Developing timely and cost effective corrective actions.

This course has been developed by senior NWT personnel who have been involved in PWR and BWR water chemistry, corrosion, water treatment, and activity transport control for 20 or more years. Their experience base has been complemented by consideration of the underlying chemistry and engineering principles in each area of instruction. Because of the nature of the course, senior NWT personnel provide all instruction (see resumes).

The course is intended for PWR chemistry personnel involved in data review, problem identification and diagnosis, and development of corrective actions.



Section 1 - Steam Generator Corrosion and its Minimization
  1. Steam Generator Corrosion Considerations
    1. Design Features
    2. Industry Trends
    3. Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking/Intergranular Attack
    4. Denting
    5. Erosion/Fretting
    6. Corrosion Assisted Fatigue
  2. Guidelines and Specifications for Corrosion Minimization
    1. Basis for Values
    2. Control Values and Action Levels

Section 2 - Impurity Transport Considerations

  1. Mass Balance Approach to Impurity Transport Evaluations
    1. Ionic Impurities
    2. Oxygen
  2. Ion Exchange Considerations
    1. Ion Exchange Resins
    2. Mixed Beds
    3. Precoat Systems
    4. Selectivity Theory: Application to Ionic Leakage Estimation
    5. Resin Leakage Effects

Section 3 - Hideout in PWR Steam Generators

  1. Experimental Methodology
  2. Available Data Base
  3. Crevice Chemistry

Section 4 - Prediction of Crevice Chemistry

  1. Crevice Modeling - Thermodynamic Considerations
  2. Physical Chemistry Considerations
  3. Applications of MULTEQ

Section 5 - Interpretation of Hideout Return Data

  1. Experimental Methodology
  2. Crevice Chemistry Inferences

Section 6 - Corrosion Product Transport

  1. Justification for Corrosion Product Transport Control
  2. Industry Guidelines
  3. Measurement of Corrosion Product Transport
    1. Sampling Considerations
    2. Mass Transport Approach
  4. Corrosion Product Transport
    1. Methodology for Plant Studies
    2. Control Approaches

Section 7 - Primary System Chemistry Control

  1. Technical Justifications
    1. System Integrity
    2. Fuel Integrity
    3. Shutdown Dose Rate Minimization
  2. Chemistry Guidelines
    1. Bases
    2. Parameters/Values

Section 8 - Activated Corrosion Product Transport

  1. Sources of Activated Corrosion Products
  2. Radiation Buildup Trends
    1. Shutdown Radiation Monitoring
    2. Isotopic Measurements
  3. Radiation Buildup Models
    1. Solubility of Corrosion Products
  4. Methods of Control
    1. Chemistry Control during Operation
    2. Effect of Zinc Addition
    3. Shutdown Chemistry Control


S. G. SAWOCHKA: Dr. Sawochka currently is President of NWT Corporation. He has been involved with consulting and R&D projects in the fields of water chemistry, water treatment, corrosion, and radwaste processing in BWR and PWR systems for 30 years. He previously was Manager of Water Chemistry Development for General Electric's BWR Systems Department. Dr. Sawochka has authored numerous publications in the referenced areas and has been an active member of EPRI committees that have developed guidelines for BWR and PWR chemistry control.

G. F. PALINO: Dr. Palino has been a Principal Consultant with NWT since 1979. From 1974 to 1979, he was associated with General Electric's Nuclear Energy Division. Prior to joining GE, Dr. Palino taught chemistry, radio-chemistry and engineering courses at San Jose State University, at Harvey Mudd College and at the Federal University of Rio de Janiero. Since joining NWT, Dr. Palino's responsibilities have included technical management of PWR primary and secondary system chemistry studies and BWR radiation level assessment and control programs. He also has developed and presented training courses for BWR and PWR chemistry staffs and has worked in the areas of radwaste treatment, volume reduction, tracer calibration of flowmeters, condensate demineralization and quantification of moisture carryover from PWR steam generators.

H. R. HELMHOLZ: Mr. Helmholz began his nuclear industry career in 1951 at Hanford. He subsequently joined the Case Institute of Technology where he organized the radiochemistry program and taught courses in nuclear chemistry. After several years at KAPL and at NRTS at Idaho Falls, where he supervised the S5G chemistry laboratory, he joined GE-Vallecitos and assumed responsibility for design and performance of chemical test programs at operating BWRs. Since joining NWT in 1981, he has had responsibility for numerous projects in the chemistry and radiochemistry areas including development of radioanalytical procedures, laboratory reviews, training course development and presentation, and assessments of solid waste radioassay techniques, radwaste dose rate to curie conversions, ventilation monitoring, and fuel failure modes.



CLASS SCHEDULE: Classes will be held from 8:15 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. Monday through Thursday with one hour for lunch and 8:15 to noon on Friday.

ENROLLMENT: Course enrollments are limited to 10. Reservations can be made by phone 408-281-1100, fax 408-578-0790, e-mail or Enrollment Form. If you prefer, discuss your interests with the Program Director.

FEE: The $1,900 course fee includes all course material, break refreshments, lunches (4) and one scheduled dinner. Lodging and other meals are NOT INCLUDED. A Certificate of Participation is provided to each participant. Payment or Purchase order is due within 30 days of enrollment. Fee is non-refundable unless the class is canceled. Alternates may be substituted for the enrollee at any time.

NWT Corporation reserves the right to cancel this class within two weeks of start date if fewer than six students are enrolled.

LOCATION/LODGING: The class will be held at the NWT offices in San Jose, California. Information on San Jose area hotels will be provided with enrollment confirmation.

ON SITE TRAINING SESSIONS: For information about holding this seminar at your site, employing plant specific data and system design information, please contact the Program Director. Customized reduced length seminars also can be developed.

ALTERNATE COURSE AVAILABLE: The following NWT course also is intermittently offered at our San Jose offices:

BWR Operational Chemistry: Problem Assessment and Diagnosis (4½ days)

This course also can be customized for specific plants and held at the plant site or corporate office. One or two day seminars on specific subjects or directed at specific utility personnel also can be developed.


Dr. S. G. Sawochka (Program Director)
at (408) 281-1100, fax (408) 578-0790 or
E-Mail: Sawochka@nwtcorp.com



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